February 24, 2012

Age of Bearded Giants

It appears that there have been some gross inaccuracies and misunderstandings that have led scientists to accept an oversimplified model of human entry into America via the Bering land bridge during the height of the last ice age. No consideration to the possibility that ocean crossings played a significant part in the populating of the Americas, has been given. Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. Not only this, but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans, helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago.

Recent discoveries of three 15,000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct.

Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6,000 years ago, therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event, distorting the picture of early habitation of our planet. Factors that determined human settlement 20,000 years ago were much the same as they are today, as a result the preferred sites for towns and cities would have been on the coast. The sea provided unhindered passage to other towns for trade (no mountains, canyons, powerful river currents, jungles, deserts or hostile tribes to interfere with ones passage). Not only that, but boats were the trucks of the olden days, transporting large cargoes for trade.

Many megalithic monuments around the world are made from rocks that have been transported hundreds of kilometres away from their source, suggesting that large sailing boats were in use 6,000 years ago and possibly as early as 18,000 years ago. Boats were one of the earliest forms of communal transport invented by man, seaworthy boats would have expanded mans horizons immeasurably. As a result of him using the 'highways of the sea', his desire to determine where he was going, fueled a revolution in astronomy, mathematics, trigonometry and ultimately world trade. The Polar meltdown between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago talked about later in this chapter would not only have produced a rapid rise in sea level, but also, the iso static rebound would have caused subsidence of weak crustal areas such as the mid Atlantic Ridge, causing earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, resulting in the devastation of coastal towns and the decimation of all seafaring nations around the world. Not only did it destroy the people of this time, but also much of the knowledge which they possessed.

This was not the only catastrophic rise in sea level that early man has had to deal with, there were others. It was after these events that we find the survivors taking an interest in swamp agriculture around lakes and on highland plateaus without fear of inundation.

It appears that archaeologists may have mistaken this regrouping of man after the final floods as the beginning of agriculture and civilization.

Aztec and Toltec history identifies that 17,608 years ago was the beginning of "The Age of the First Sun" or the "Age of White Haired Giants", or in Inca history - the Age of Viracochas - the “White and Bearded Gods”. According to European archaeology, Cro Magnon man was quite tall, had pale skin, blonde hair and was capable of growing beards. It sounds to me like cultures on either side of the Atlantic are describing the same breed of man.

Archaeological finds in America appear to confirm the existence of very tall people being the base layer of the Native American cultures. A skeleton estimated as being 10,000 years old was found in the ‘tomb of Palli Aike' in Tierra del Fuego in 1969-70 and has been identified as Cro-Magnon, which indicates that these people also spread to South America.

In the book, The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, author John Haywood describes; "very large" bones in stone graves found in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1821. In White County, Tennessee, an "ancient fortification" contained skeletons of gigantic stature averaging at least 7 feet in length.

In February and June of 1931, large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock, Nevada. The first of these two skeletons found appeared to have been wrapped in a gum-covered fabric similar to the Egyptian manner. The second skeleton was almost 7 feet long. (Review - Miner, June 19, 1931).

George W. Hill, M.D., dug out a skeleton "of unusual size" in a mound of Ashland County, Ohio. In 1879, another tall skeleton was excavated from a mound near Brewersville, Indiana (Indianapolis News, Nov 10, 1975)

Just as black haired Greeks had an earlier past of taller blonde and red haired people (the Titans), so did the Amerindians.

13,600 years ago In Aztec legends, was the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun - the “Golden Age” and is remembered in Incan legends as the “Age of Giants”. This Age lasted 4,010 years, it began with the Biblical and Sumerian Great Flood, followed by the Deluge and ended with a calamity involving the Wind Serpent. The demise of Atlantis was somewhere in the middle of this.

European legends from Ireland, Brittany, Spain and North Africa and Egypt talk of their legendary homeland being on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and in some legends it was called Atlantis.

This map shows the position of the coastline during the height of the last ice age about 18,000 years ago. Seafloor topography clearly reveals the island of Atlantis in the Mid Atlantic. This area was pushed up to the ocean surface during the height of the last ice age as a reaction to the weight of over 3 km of ice on the poles, which depressed the crust in the Polar regions and caused weak areas of the the crust in mid lattitudes to distend outwards as the planet attempted to find an equilibrium. This effect would not be noticed on the continents as their thickness of 30 km or more would resist distortion, but the7-10km thin oceanic floors, especially the Mid Atlantic ridge where a seam of magma reaches the surface, would display the greatest amount of distortion, forcing the seafloor to rise a correspondingly similar distance to the depression at the poles - that is 2-3km. Today we are likely to witness a similar situation with Iceland - another island on the mid Atlantic ridge. As global warming continues to melt the ice at the poles, Iceland too, risks a sudden collapse under the surface of the ocean.

It is no coincidence that many Central American place names are also derived from the fabled city of Atlantis. Aztlan, Azatlan, Atlanta, Tlan, Tolan, Tulan, and Tenochtitlan are all linguistically similar. The people of these cities would most likely have been descendants of the survivors of Atlantis. The Grand Bahama Banks - a shallow area of sea that 10,000 years ago would have been an island as big as Ireland and appears to have had trading ports around its perimeter. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures.

When comparing Platos story to this area it all fitted except for talk of horses and elephants in the city. I then looked up mammal extinctions in North America, to find that Mastodons and horses became extinct approximately 11,000 years ago! This correlates perfectly with the Clovis hunters and the time of Atlantis.

Archaeological evidence shows that the Clovis people multiplied and spread across North America from the Gulf of Mexico about 13,000 years ago. This period abruptly ended with the demise of the megafauna of North America along with end of the Clovis people. According to the Aztecs, 7,590 B.C. or 9,500 years ago was the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun also called the“Age of the Red Haired People.

These people were the survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them.

Not only did the Age of Red heads end in America and Begin in Europe at this time, but it also marks the massive genetic bottleneck in East Asia when the Thais, Tibetans, Tlingit, Haida and Hawaiians dispersed from the Taiwanese people.

Many people seem to think that Celts influenced American culture and ancient petroglyphs and megalithic monuments may seem to suggest this, but what one is seeing here is a dispersal of culture not to America, but from America.

After the final sea level rises 6,000 years ago, wiping the Bahama Banks clean of any civilization, there was a major shift in world populations. Remnants of this culture of Red Heads went their separate ways.The Celts took the Gulf stream back to their ancestral homeland of Europe, wheras the Anasazi, Hopi, Zuni, Algonquian and Auracano, just to name a few remained in mainland America and began to mix with incoming Asians who had suffered a similar catastrophe of Sea level rises on the East Asian coastline.

There are also suggestions that the Celts were in New Zealand before the Maori. This is not strictly true, they too along with the Red Heads of Rapa nui were also fragments of the Age of the Red Heads in America. The Picts of Scotland were probably from a similar tribe to the the Tattooed Red Heads of the Pacific.

It appears that Cro Magnon man was much more than a dirty unshaven bloodthirsty barbaric troglodite who hunted animals and dragged women around by the hair. It seems that there was once a highly sophistocated civilization that influenced many cultures around the world before it was destroyed by the hand of nature.

February 22, 2012

Sophisticated Cave Men: DNA Fully Modern!

Scientists Claim Cro Magnon DNA Unchanged for 28,000 Years

If Neanderthal is supposed to have lived in Europe beginning 300,000 years ago and Cro-Magnon for the last 30,000 years or so and it turns out that their “Modern” DNA is unchanged since that time; when did we do all that evolving?

A Cro-Magnon DNA sequence supposedly 28,000 years old was obtained from fossil bones discoverd in the Paglicci cave, in Italy. The results show that the DNA is identical to the DNA sequences of certain modern Europeans.

The DNA sequence has remained static and unchanged in over 28,000 years.

Of course this means that Cro Magnon was a fully modern individual who perhaps was built more strongly and had a larger brain capacity. The study went further. They sequenced the DNA of the 123 people who could have been in contact with the fossils since their discovery to rule out contamination by modern humans.

That should shut the mouth of the naysaying scientists who were having a wee bit of trouble seeing their cave man vanish into thin air.

A short time ago, in another article earlier this year, about Neanderthal man scientists reported that their DNA sequencing of a “38,000 year old Neanderthal man showed that his DNA matched “modern man” by 99.99%. That’s the same DNA match that exists between any two people living today.

That being said, science has now found that the entire cave man evolutionary myth, made “real” by portraying “Cro-Magnon” and “Neanderthal man” as short, brutish, dumb and hairy “cave men” has been replaced with a new reality, which unlike most of Darwinism is actually backed up by the fossil record.

Cro Magnon and Neanderthal, both had larger brains than modern man, and neither were ever found in Africa.

There are still scientists at this very moment who claim that Neanderthal could not speak, that he had no language and that he did not interbreed with Cro-Magnon or “Modern” man. There are still scientists who claim that “Cro”magnon” never learned how to ride a horse. These evolutionists refuse to come out of the cave.

As enlightening as these findings are, the authors still claim that these two populations lived side by side by as much as 10,000 years without interbreeding, which could seem plausible if you’re convinced you’re dealing with a “pre-human group” and a “human group”. The truth is however, that we’re dealing with men as modern as you and I. Recent sequencing of the neanderthal genome has conclusively shown that not only did Cro Magnon and Neanderthal interbreed, but that all current Caucasian and Asian populations share Neanderthal genetics. The article abstract follows;

Abstract Background
DNA sequences from ancient speciments may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal) and early modern (Cro-Magnoid) Europeans.

Methodology/Principal Findings
We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23) and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003.
The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences.

The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans.
Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans.

February 20, 2012

China finds pyramid in ancient tomb

BEIJING - Chinese researchers say they have found a strange pyramid-shaped chamber while surveying the massive underground tomb of China's first emperor. Remote sensing equipment has revealed what appears to be a 100-foot-high room above Emperor Qin Shihuang's tomb near the ancient capital of Xi'an in Shaanxi province, the official Xinhua News Agency reported.

The room has not been excavated. Diagrams of the chamber are based on data gathered over five years using radar and other remote sensing technologies, the news agency said.

Archaeologist Liu Qingzhu of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences was quoted as saying the room is unlike any ever found in a Chinese tomb.

"Qin himself was very unusual, so it's not unexpected that his tomb should also be unique," Liu told the news agency.

Archaeologists theorize that because the room was built on top of Qin's mausoleum and seems to have ladder-like steps leading up, it was intended as a passageway for his spirit, Xinhua said.

Qin is credited with starting construction of the Great Wall and commissioning an army of terra cotta soldiers to guard his tomb.

Thousands of the terra cotta warriors were discovered more than 20 years ago by peasants from a local commune who were sinking wells.

February 16, 2012

Nevada’s Mysterious Cave of The Red-Haired Giants

Many Native American tribes from the Northeast and Southwest still relate the legends of the red-haired giants and how their ancestors fought terrible, protracted wars against the giants when they first encountered them in North America 15,000 years ago.
Others, like the Aztecs and Mayans recorded their encounters with a race of giants to the north when they ventured out on exploratory expeditions. Who were these red-haired giants that history books have ignored?

Their burial sites and remains have been discovered on nearly every continent. In the United States they have been unearthed in Virginia and New York state, Michigan, Illinois and Tennessee, Arizona and Nevada. And it’s in the state of Nevada that the story of the native Paiute’s wars against the giant red-haired men transformed from a local myth to a scientific reality during 1924 when the Lovelock Caves were excavated.

At one time the Lovelock Cave was known as Horseshoe cave because of its U-shaped interior. The cavern—located about 20 miles south of modern day Lovelock, Nevada, is approximately 40-feet deep and 60-feet wide. It’s a very old cave that pre-dates humans on this continent. In prehistoric times it lay underneath a giant inland lake called Lahontan that covered much of western Nevada. Geologists have determined the cavern was formed by the lake’s currents and wave action.

The Legend
The Paiutes, a Native-American tribe indigenous to parts of Nevada, Utah and Arizona, told early white settlers about their ancestors’ battles with a ferocious race of white, red-haired giants. According to the Paiutes, the giants were already living in the area.

The Paiutes named the giants “Si-Te-Cah” that literally means “tule-eaters.” The tule is a fibrous water plant the giants wove into rafts to escape the Paiutes continuous attacks. They used the rafts to navigate across what remained of Lake Lahontan. According to the Paiutes, the red-haired giants stood as tall as 8-feet and were a vicious, unapproachable people that killed and ate captured Paiutes as food. [Overestimation is to be expected.]

The Paiutes told the early settlers that after many years of warfare, all the tribes in the area finally joined together to rid themselves of the giants. One day as they chased down the few remaining red-haired enemy, the fleeing giants took refuge in a cave. The tribal warriors demanded their enemy come out and fight, but the giants steadfastly refused to leave their sanctuary. Frustrated at not defeating their enemy with honor [underestimation is to be expected], the tribal chiefs had warriors fill the entrance to the cavern with brush and then set it on fire in a bid to force the giants out of the cave. The few that did emerge were instantly slain with volleys of arrows. The giants that remained inside the cavern were asphyxiated. [--"Honorably," I presume] Later, an earthquake rocked the region and the cave entrance collapsed leaving only enough room for bats to enter it and make it their home.

The Excavation
Thousands of years later the cave was rediscovered and found to be loaded with bat guano almost 6-feet deep. Decaying bat guano becomes saltpeter, the chief ingredient of gunpowder, and was very valuable. Therefore, in 1911 a company was created specifically to mine the guano. As the mining operation progressed, skeletons and fossils were found. The guano was mined for almost 13 years before archaeologists were notified about the findings. Unfortunately, by then many of the artifacts had been accidentally destroyed or simply discarded. Nevertheless, what the scientific researchers did recover was staggering: over 10,000 artifacts were unearthed including the mummified remains of two red-haired giants—one, a female 6.5-feet tall, the other male, over 8-feet tall. Many of the artifacts (but not the giants) can be viewed at the small natural history museum located in Winnemucca, Nevada.

Confirmation of the Myth
As the excavation of the cave progressed, the archaeologists came to the inescapable conclusion that the Paiutes myth was no myth; it was true. What led them to this realization was the discovery of many broken arrows that had been shot into the cave and a dark layer of burned material under sections of the overlaying guano. Among the thousands of artifacts recovered from this site of an unknown people is what some scientists are convinced is a calendar: a donut-shaped stone with exactly 365 notches carved along its outside rim and 52 corresponding notches along the inside.

But that was not to be the final chapter of red-haired giants in Nevada. In February and June of 1931, two very large skeletons were found in the Humboldt dry lake bed near Lovelock, Nevada. One of the skeletons measured 8.5-feet tall and was later described as having been wrapped in a gum-covered fabric similar to Egyptian mummies. The other was nearly 9-feet long. [Nevada Review-Miner newspaper, June 19, 1931.]

February 13, 2012

Is The U.S. Government Covering Up Amazing Archaeological Finds In The Grand Canyon?

Is the U.S. government covering up evidence that the ancient Egyptians once traveled as far as the Grand Canyon? As far-fetched as that may seem, there is some evidence that suggest that may be exactly what is happening. On April 5th, 1909, a front page story in the Arizona Gazette reported that a team of explorers had made absolutely mind blowing archaeological discoveries in the heart of the Grand Canyon. The team was apparently funded by the Smithsonian Institute, and the article mentions structures and hieroglyphics that the team found which were described as being "Egyptian" in nature. Unfortunately, after this initial news report there were never any other reports about this extraordinary discovery. So did this discovery really happen? Is it being covered up? Is there evidence sitting in caverns near the Grand Canyon that would change everything that we believe about North American history?

Here we have is the April 5th, 1909 article from the Arizona Gazette. The article text is posted below....


Mysteries of Immense Rich Cavern being brought to light

Jordan is enthused
Remarkable finds indicate ancient people migrated from Orient

The latest news of the progress of the explorations of what is now regarded by scientists as not only the oldest archaeological discovery in the United States, but one of the most valuable in the world, which was mentioned some time ago in the Gazette, was brought to the city yesterday by G.E. Kinkaid, the explorer who found the great underground citadel of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green River, Wyoming, down the Colorado, in a wooden boat, to Yuma, several months ago.

According to the story related to the Gazette by Mr. Kinkaid, the archaeologists of the Smithsonian Institute, which is financing the expeditions, have made discoveries which almost conclusively prove that the race which inhabited this mysterious cavern, hewn in solid rock by human hands, was of oriental origin, possibly from Egypt, tracing back to Ramses. If their theories are borne out by the translation of the tablets engraved with hieroglyphics, the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America, their ancient arts, who they were and whence they came, will be solved. Egypt and the Nile, and Arizona and the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain running back to ages which staggers the wildest fancy of the fictionist.

A Thorough Examination

Under the direction of Prof. S. A. Jordan, the Smithsonian Institute is now prosecuting the most thorough explorations, which will be continued until the last link in the chain is forged. Nearly a mile underground, about 1480 feet below the surface, the long main passage has been delved into, to find another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores of passageways, like the spokes of a wheel.

Several hundred rooms have been discovered, reached by passageways running from the main passage, one of them having been explored for 854 feet and another 634 feet. The recent finds include articles which have never been known as native to this country, and doubtless they had their origin in the orient. War weapons, copper instruments, sharp-edged and hard as steel, indicate the high state of civilization reached by these strange people. So interested have the scientists become that preparations are being made to equip the camp for extensive studies, and the force will be increased to thirty or forty persons.

Mr. Kinkaid's Report

Mr. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho and has been an explorer and hunter all his life, thirty years having been in the service of the Smithsonian Institute. Even briefly recounted, his history sounds fabulous, almost grotesque.

"First, I would impress that the cavern is nearly inaccessible. The entrance is 1,486 feet down the sheer canyon wall. It is located on government land and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty of trespass. The scientists wish to work unmolested, without fear of archaeological discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic hunters. A trip there would be fruitless, and the visitor would be sent on his way. The story of how I found the cavern has been related, but in a paragraph: I was journeying down the Colorado river in a boat, alone, looking for mineral. Some forty-two miles up the river from the El Tovar Crystal canyon, I saw on the east wall, stains in the sedimentary formation about 2,000 feet above the river bed. There was no trail to this point, but I finally reached it with great difficulty.
Above a shelf which hid it from view from the river, was the mouth of the cave. There are steps leading from this entrance some thirty yards to what was, at the time the cavern was inhabited, the level of the river. When I saw the chisel marks on the wall inside the entrance, I became interested, securing my gun and went in. During that trip I went back several hundred feet along the main passage till I came to the crypt in which I discovered the mummies. One of these I stood up and photographed by flashlight. I gathered a number of relics, which I carried down the Colorado to Yuma, from whence I shipped them to Washington with details of the discovery. Following this, the explorations were undertaken.

The Passages

"The main passageway is about 12 feet wide, narrowing to nine feet toward the farther end. About 57 feet from the entrance, the first side-passages branch off to the right and left, along which, on both sides, are a number of rooms about the size of ordinary living rooms of today, though some are 30 by 40 feet square. These are entered by oval-shaped doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through the walls into the passages. The walls are about three feet six inches in thickness.

The passages are chiselled or hewn as straight as could be laid out by an engineer. The ceilings of many of the rooms converge to a center. The side-passages near the entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall, but toward the rear they gradually reach a right angle in direction.

The Shrine

"Over a hundred feet from the entrance is the cross-hall, several hundred feet long, in which are found the idol, or image, of the people's god, sitting cross-legged, with a lotus flower or lily in each hand. The cast of the face is oriental, and the carving this cavern. The idol almost resembles Buddha, though the scientists are not certain as to what religious worship it represents. Taking into consideration everything found thus far, it is possible that this worship most resembles the ancient people of Tibet.

Surrounding this idol are smaller images, some very beautiful in form; others crooked-necked and distorted shapes, symbolical, probably, of good and evil. There are two large cactus with protruding arms, one on each side of the dais on which the god squats. All this is carved out of hard rock resembling marble. In the opposite corner of this cross-hall were found tools of all descriptions, made of copper. These people undoubtedly knew the lost art of hardening this metal, which has been sought by chemicals for centuries without result. On a bench running around the workroom was some charcoal and other material probably used in the process. There is also slag and stuff similar to matte, showing that these ancients smelted ores, but so far no trace of where or how this was done has been discovered, nor the origin of the ore.

"Among the other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper and gold, made very artistic in design. The pottery work includes enamelled ware and glazed vessels. Another passageway leads to granaries such as are found in the oriental temples. They contain seeds of various kinds. One very large storehouse has not yet been entered, as it is twelve feet high and can be reached only from above. Two copper hooks extend on the edge, which indicates that some sort of ladder was attached. These granaries are rounded, as the materials of which they are constructed, I think, is a very hard cement. A gray metal is also found in this cavern, which puzzles the scientists, for its identity has not been established. It resembles platinum. Strewn promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what people call "cats eyes”, a yellow stone of no great value. Each one is engraved with the head of the Malay type.

The Hieroglyphics

"On all the urns, or walls over doorways, and tablets of stone which were found by the image are the mysterious hieroglyphics, the key to which the Smithsonian Institute hopes yet to discover. The engraving on the tables probably has something to do with the religion of the people. Similar hieroglyphics have been found in southern Arizona. Among the pictorial writings, only two animals are found. One is of prehistoric type.

The Crypt

"The tomb or crypt in which the mummies were found is one of the largest of the chambers, the walls slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. On these are tiers of mummies, each one occupying a separate hewn shelf. At the head of each is a small bench, on which is found copper cups and pieces of broken swords. Some of the mummies are covered with clay, and all are wrapped in a bark fabric.

The urns or cups on the lower tiers are crude, while as the higher shelves are reached, the urns are finer in design, showing a later stage of civilization. It is worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far have proved to be male, no children or females being buried here. This leads to the belief that this exterior section was the warriors' barracks.

"Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been found, no skins, no clothing, no bedding. Many of the rooms are bare but for water vessels. One room, about 40 by 700 feet, was probably the main dining hall, for cooking utensils are found here. What these people lived on is a problem, though it is presumed that they came south in the winter and farmed in the valleys, going back north in the summer.

Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in the caverns comfortably. One theory is that the present Indian tribes found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly a good many thousands of years before the Christian era, a people lived here which reached a high stage of civilization. The chronology of human history is full of gaps. Professor Jordan is much enthused over the discoveries and believes that the find will prove of incalculable value in archaeological work.

"One thing I have not spoken of, may be of interest. There is one chamber of the passageway to which is not ventilated, and when we approached it a deadly, snaky smell struck us. Our light would not penetrate the gloom, and until stronger ones are available we will not know what the chamber contains. Some say snakes, but other boo-hoo this idea and think it may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the ancients. No sounds are heard, but it smells snaky just the same. The whole underground installation gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. The gloom is like a weight on one's shoulders, and our flashlights and candles only make the darkness blacker. Imagination can revel in conjectures and ungodly daydreams back through the ages that have elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space.”